National Monument or the popular abbreviated or Monas National Monument is a memorial to the height of 132 meters (433 feet), which was established to commemorate the Indonesian people’s struggle for independence from Dutch colonial rule. The construction of this monument began on August 17th, 1961 under the orders of president Sukarno, and opened to the public on July 12, 1975. This monument crowned flame coated gold leaf symbolizing the fighting spirit blazing. Monas is located right in the center of Merdeka Square, Central Jakarta. Monuments and museums are open every day from 08.00 – 15.00 pm. On Monday last week of each month is closed to the public.
After the central government of Indonesia returned to Jakarta were previously located in Yogyakarta in 1950 following the recognition of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia by the Dutch government in 1949, President Sukarno began to create a concept for the development of a national monument that is equivalent to the Eiffel Tower on the ground right in front of the Palace. Development aims Monas monument commemorate the Indonesian struggle for independence during the revolution of 1945, in order to continue to generate inspiration, motivation and spirit of patriotism of the next generation.
On August 17, 1954 a national committee was formed and open competition for the design of a national monument that was held in 1955. 51 works entered, but only one works made by Frederich Silaban who meet the specified requirements of the committee, among others, describe the character of the Indonesian nation and can last for centuries. The second contest was held in 1960 and there was no longer any of the 136 participants who meet the requirements. Chairman of the jury then asked Silaban to show his design to Sukarno. But Sukarno not like to draft it, and he wanted the monument was shaped phallus and yoni. Silaban then asked to design a monument with a theme like that, but the design of the proposed Silaban too costly enormous and more especially the current economic condition was quite bad, so that the state could not finance the budget for it. Silaban reject designing smaller building, and suggested delaying economic development to Indonesia membaik.Presiden Sukarno then asked the architect RM Soedarsono to resume the draft. Soedarsono enter the numbers 17, 8 and 45, August 17, 1945 symbolizes the start of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, into the design of the monument itu.Tugu National Memorial was later built in an area of 80 hectares. This monument diarsiteki by Friedrich Silaban and RM Soedarsono, began construction August 17, 1961.
Monas draft based on the concept of Linga and Yoni. Monument towering obelisk is a phallus that symbolizes male, masculine elements that are active and positive, and symbolize the day. While the court of the cup runway is Yoni obelisk symbolizing female, feminine element that is passive and negative, as well as symbolizing the night. Phallus and yoni, the symbol of fertility and harmonious unity complementary since prehistoric Indonesia. In addition Monas forms can also be interpreted as a pair of “alu” and “Dimples”, pestle rice found in every household Indonesian traditional farmers. Thus the design of the full dimensions of a typical monument of Indonesian culture. Monument obelisk consists of 117.7 meters above the runway as high as the 17 meter square, court of the cup. This monument is lined with Italian marble.
Swimming in Taman Medan Merdeka Utara measuring 25 x 25 meters was designed as part of the air conditioning system as well as enhance the appearance of Monument Park. Nearby are the fountain and statue of Prince Diponegoro who was riding his horse, made of bronze weighing 8 tons. The statue was created by Italian sculptor, Prof. Coberlato as a donation by the Consulate General of Honores, Dr. Mario Bross in Indonesia. The entrance monument located at Medan Merdeka Utara park near the statue of Prince Diponegoro. The entrance through a tunnel that is 3 m below the park and cross the street this Monument, visitors’ entrance to the memorial monument. Ticket booth located at the end of the tunnel. When visitors climb back up to ground level on the north side of the monument, visitors can continue walking around looking at the history of the struggle of Indonesian relief; into the museum of national history through the door in the northeast corner, or straight up into the middle towards the independence or the elevator to the top court monuments.
1. Size and Content Monas
Monas was built as high as 132 meters and yoni phallus-shaped. The entire building is covered by marble.
2. Fire Tongue
At the top there is a cup topped with flames of bronze height of 17 meters and a diameter of 6 meters with a weight of 14.5 tons. Flame is coated with gold weighing 45 kg. Flame monument consists of 77 sections joined together.
3. The Court of Peak
Top court breadth of 11×11 m. To reach the top court, visitors can use the lift with long travel about 3 minutes. All around there is a stair lift emergency. From the top of Monas, visitors can see the buildings of skyscrapers in the city. Even if the weather is fine, visitors can see Mount Salak in West Java and the Java Sea with the Thousand Islands.
4. The Court of Down
Under the court of the extent of 45X45 m. The height of the monument base to the court that is 17 meters below. In this section visitors can see Monument Park which is a beautiful city forest.
5. History Museum of Struggle
At the bottom of the National Monument there is a large room that is the National Museum. Height is 8 meters. The museum displays the history of the struggle of the Indonesian nation. The area of this museum is 80×80 m. On the fourth side of the museum there are 12 dioramas (display window) showing the history of Indonesia from the era of kingdoms Nations ancestors Indonesia until G30S PKI.